A recent report conducted by the member States of the European Union underline the fact that 75 per cent of European marine waters are heavily polluted due to human activities, and they show the way this phenomenon involves also large areas of sea bottom.
Pressures over natural marine resources and the quests for marine ecosystem services are often too high, and in addition to that oceans and underwater life are facing multiple threats caused by climate change, as it is stated by a previous report. All these issues lead to a loss of a large part of biodiversity in marine habitats.
The situation nonetheless should progress thanks to the application of the directive about the community action in the field of marine environmental policy of the European Commission in 2008 and to the European Commission’s “Blue Growth” Strategy. The directive solicits the achievement of a “good environmental situation” by the end of 2020 in all the EU States, improving in this way the quality of sea bottoms and marine habitats in European waters, aiming to preserve seas and oceans’ biodiversity and possibly to re-establish it where it has been contaminated.
Furthermore, this directive proposes the realization of a European accordance of objectives in these fields, going from conservation measures to management and monitoring activities expected to take place in spatial protection, as for example special conservation or protection areas and safeguarded marine areas.